Prints and Markings on the Snow Surface

(numbers refer to page references for Ryd and Rassa's book)

reindeer prints in soft snow

Terms for prints and markings on the snow surface:

åppås (138) freshly fallen snow with no animal tracks crossing it

fresh untodden snow in field

Image by Tom

appas snow

Image by BuckysPals

appas scene open field

Image by FoodScience Girl

vahtse (137) fresh, light snow that covers over previously fallen snow and then displays well fresh animal tracks

vahtse view

Image by Team SnowIdea

pavement with thin coating of snow

Image by Snow Bunnies

small animal tracks in a circle on fresh snow

Image by Snow Bunnies

prints of smalll animal leading to tree

Image by John Cheadle's Understudy

night view of rabbit tracks on fresh snow

Image by Snow Bunny

hoof prints in fresh snow

Image by Team Jötnar

tjiegar (207) abundantly pawed up snow, especially where reindeer have been digging to reach food beneath the surface

pawed up snow, near Pielpäpärvi, Finland

(the above image from near Pielpajärvi, Finland.) Tom


suovdnji (North Sámi term, see Jernsletten 106) grazing hole, area pawed up by reindeer or deer in order to feed.

area dug up by deer

Image by Snowday

tjuojvoj (137) hardened, extensively trodden snow showing tracks leading in all different directions

hardened snow with extensive tracks


hoof prints in snow

Image by Food Science Girl

various prints in snow

Image by Motel Nepal

various human prints on pavement

Image by Team Reindeer

sjádde (207) area so pawed up by reindeer that it is no longer suitable for reindeer grazing

tjårok (184) tracks raised above the surface of the snow. Formed when animals or skis press snow down more firmly than the surrounding powder; wind subsequently blows away the surrounding snow, leaving the prints as raised areas.

tracks raised above surface of snow


raised tracks in snow

Image by Järven Naiset

doalle (154) hardened tracks or trail that has been coated in a fresh layer of snow but which still remain visible to the eye. Easier to walk or ski on doalle than on the surrounding snow


tracks visible beneath new layer of snow--doalle


See also muohtarievta, in Distribution section

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birch tree with snow adhering